Xiao Y, Stegmann M, Han Z, DeFalco TA, Parys K, Xu L, Belkhadir Y, Zipfel C, Chai J (2019)
Mechanisms of RALF peptide perception by a heterotypic receptor complex. Nature 10th July 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1409-7Read more
My group studies the molecular basis of plant innate immunity. We aim at deciphering the signaling events linking perception of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to the establishment of immunity. We use the leucine-rich repeats receptor kinases EFR and FLS2, which perceive bacterial EF-Tu and flagellin, respectively, as model pattern recognition receptors (PRRs).
Our work also aims at understanding how plant receptor kinases work at the molecular level and how signaling specificity is achieved between different receptor kinase-mediated signaling pathways involved in immunity and growth.
We are also exploring how outcomes of our research can be used to engineer sustainable broad-spectrum disease resistance in crops
Mechanisms of RALF peptide perception by a heterotypic receptor complex. Nature 10th July 2019. doi: 10.1038/s41586-019-1409-7Read more
A Lotus japonicus cytoplasmic kinase connects Nod factor perception by the NFR5 LysM receptor to nodulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 Jun 25. pii: 201815425. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1815425116.Read more
A receptor for herbivore-associated molecular patterns mediates plant immunity. bioRxiv preprint Jun 22, 2019 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/679803Read more
TTL proteins scaffold brassinosteroid signaling components at the plasma membrane to optimize signal transduction in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2019 Jun 12. pii: tpc.00150.2019. doi: 10.1105/tpc.19.00150.Read more
Chitin perception in plasmodesmata identifies subcellular, context-specific immune signalling in plants. bioRxiv preprint Apr 17, 2019 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/611582Read more
Widely-conserved attenuation of plant MAMP-induced calcium influx by bacteria depends on multiple virulence factors and may involve desensitization of host pattern recognition receptors. Mol Plant Microbe Interact. 2019 Jan 21. doi: 10.1094/MPMI-10-18-0291-R.Read more
CrRLK1L receptor-like kinases HERK1 and ANJEA are female determinants of pollen tube reception. bioRxiv preprint Nov 19, 2018 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/428854
REM1.3’s phospho-status defines its plasma membrane nanodomain organization and activity in restricting PVX cell-to-cell movement. PLoS Pathog. 2018 Nov 12;14(11):e1007378. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007378.Read more
Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis reveals common regulatory mechanisms between effector- and PAMP-triggered immunity in plants. New Phytol. 2018 Oct 9. doi: 10.1111/nph.15523.Read more
The grapevine (Vitis vinifera) LysM receptor kinases VvLYK1-1 and VvLYK1-2 mediate chitooligosaccharide-triggered immunity. Plant Biotechnol J. 2018 Sep 26. doi: 10.1111/pbi.13017.Read more
Comparing Arabidopsis receptor kinase and receptor protein-mediated immune signaling reveals BIK1-dependent differences. New Phytol. 2018 Sep 25. doi: 10.1111/nph.15497.Read more
Phosphocode-dependent functional dichotomy of a common co-receptor in plant signalling. Nature, 3 Sept 2018. doi: 10.1038/s41586-018-0471-xRead more
Expression of the Arabidopsis thaliana immune receptor EFR in Medicago truncatula reduces infection by a root pathogenic bacterium, but not nitrogen-fixing rhizobial symbiosis. Plant Biotechnol J. 2018 Aug 18. doi: 10.1111/pbi.12999.Read more
The plant cell wall integrity maintenance and immune signaling systems cooperate to control stress responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Sci Signal. 2018 Jun 26;11(536). pii: eaao3070. doi: 10.1126/scisignal.aao3070.Read more
Transgenic expression of EFR and Bs2 genes for field management of bacterial wilt and bacterial spot of tomato. Phytopathology. 2018 Jun 20. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-12-17-0424-R.Read more
TTL proteins scaffold brassinosteroid signaling components at the plasma membrane to optimize signal transduction in plant cells. bioRxiv preprint Jun 20, 2018 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/351056Read more
Plant G-protein activation: connecting to plant receptor kinases. Cell Res. 2018 May 29. doi: 10.1038/s41422-018-0046-2.Read more
An apoplastic peptide activates salicylic acid signalling in maize. Nature Plants (2018) doi:10.1038/s41477-018-0116-yRead more
A Regulatory Module Controlling Homeostasis of a Plant Immune Kinase. Molecular Cell 69, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molcel.2017.12.026Read more
An extracellular network of Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases. Nature doi:10.1038/nature25184Read more
Vacuole Integrity Maintained by DUF300 Proteins Is Required for Brassinosteroid Signaling Regulation. Mol Plant. 2017 Dec 27. pii: S1674-2052(17)30385-4. doi: 10.1016/j.molp.2017.12.015.Read more
Complex regulation of plant sex by peptides. Science: Vol. 358, Issue 6370, pp. 1544-1545 DOI: 10.1126/science.aar4190Read more
The plant calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK3 phosphorylates REM1.3 to restrict viral infection. bioRxiv preprint Oct 19, 2017 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/205765Read more
Enhanced Bacterial Wilt Resistance in Potato Through Expression of Arabidopsis EFR and Introgression of Quantitative Resistance from Solanum commersonii. Front. Plant Sci., 25 September 2017 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2017.01642Read more
The Arabidopsis Leucine-rich Repeat Receptor Kinase BIR3 Negatively Regulates BAK1 Receptor Complex Formation and Stabilizes BAK1. Plant Cell. 2017 Aug 25. pii: tpc.00376.2017. doi: 10.1105/tpc.17.00376.Read more
Phospholipase C2 Regulates MAMP-Triggered Immunity by Modulating ROS Production in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2017 Aug 21. pii: pp.00173.2017. doi: 10.1104/pp.17.00173.Read more
Tyrosine-610 in the Receptor Kinase BAK1 Does Not Play a Major Role in Brassinosteroid Signaling or Innate Immunity. Front Plant Sci. 2017 Aug 2;8:1273. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2017.01273.Read more
Heterologous expression of the immune receptor EFR in Medicago truncatula reduces pathogenic infection, but not rhizobial symbiosis. bioRxiv preprint Aug 2, 2017 doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/171868Read more
Function, Discovery, and Exploitation of Plant Pattern Recognition Receptors for Broad-Spectrum Disease Resistance. Annu Rev Phytopathol. 2017 Jun 15. doi: 10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-120106.Read more
The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase MIK2/LRR-KISS connects cell wall integrity sensing, root growth and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. PLoS Genet. 2017 Jun 12;13(6):e1006832. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1006832.Read more
Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase NILR1 is required for induction of innate immunity to parasitic nematodes. PLoS Pathog. 2017 Apr 13;13(4):e1006284. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1006284.Read more
Plant signalling in symbiosis and immunity. Nature 543, 328–336. doi:10.1038/nature22009Read more
Cellulose-derived oligomers act as damage-associated molecular patterns and trigger defense-like responses. Plant Physiol. 2017 Feb 27. pii: pp.01680.2016. doi: 10.1104/pp.16.01680.Read more
Autophosphorylation-based calcium (Ca2+) sensitivity priming and Ca2+/Calmodulin inhibition of Arabidopsis thaliana Ca2+-dependent protein kinase 28 (CPK28). J Biol Chem. 2017 Jan 30. pii: jbc.M116.763243. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M116.763243.Read more
The receptor kinase FER is a RALF-regulated scaffold controlling plant immune signaling. Science 20 Jan 2017: Vol. 355, Issue 6322, pp. 287-289 DOI: 10.1126/science.aal2541Read more
Protein phosphatase AP2C1 negatively regulates basal resistance and defense responses to Pseudomonas syringae. J Exp Bot. 2017 Jan 6. pii: erw485. doi: 10.1093/jxb/erw485.Read more
Bacteria establish an aqueous living space in plants crucial for virulence. Nature 539, 524–529 doi:10.1038/nature20166Read more
LRR-RLK family from two Citrus species: genome-wide identification and evolutionary aspects. BMC Genomics: 17(1):623. doi: 10.1186/s12864-016-2930-9.Read more
The Arabidopsis Protein Phosphatase PP2C38 Negatively Regulates the Central Immune Kinase BIK1. PLoS Pathog. 12(8):e1005811. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005811.Read more
Regulation of pattern recognition receptor signalling in plants. Nature Reviews Immunology (2016) doi:10.1038/nri.2016.77Read more
Detection of the plant parasite Cuscuta reflexa by a tomato cell surface receptor. Science Vol. 353, Issue 6298, pp. 478-481 doi: 10.1126/science.aaf3919Read more
The Arabidopsis Malectin-Like/LRR-RLK IOS1 is Critical for BAK1-Dependent and BAK1-Independent Pattern-Triggered Immunity. Plant Cell. 2016 Jun 17. pii: tpc.00313.2016.Read more
Fungal pathogenesis: Host modulation every which way. Nature Microbiology 1. doi:10.1038/nmicrobiol.2016.75Read more
Scientific record: Class uncorrected errors as misconduct. Nature. 2016 Mar 10;531(7593):173. doi: 10.1038/531173e.Read more
NbCSPR underlies age-dependent immune responses to bacterial cold shock protein in Nicotiana benthamiana. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 4. pii: 201511847.Read more
Altered glycosylation of exported proteins, including surface immune receptors, compromises calcium and downstream signaling responses to microbe-associated molecular patterns in Arabidopsis thaliana. BMC Plant Biol. 2016 Jan 28;16(1):31. doi: 10.1186/s12870-016-0718-3.Read more
The Arabidopsis NADPH oxidases RbohD and RbohF display differential expression patterns and contributions during plant immunity. J. Exp. Bot. (2016) doi: 10.1093/jxb/erv558Read more
PP2A-3 interacts with ACR4 and regulates formative cell division in the Arabidopsis root. PNAS January 20, 2016 doi: 10.1073/pnas.1525122113Read more
Immunoprecipitation of Plasma Membrane Receptor-Like Kinases for Identification of Phosphorylation Sites and Associated Proteins. Methods Mol Biol. 1363 pp 133-144.Read more
Flg22-Triggered Immunity Negatively Regulates Key BR Biosynthetic Genes. Front. Plant Sci., 09 November 2015 | http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2015.00981Read more
Opposing effects on two phases of defense responses from concerted actions of HSC70 and BON1 in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiol. 2015 Sep 25. pii: pp.00970.2015.Read more
Incorporating prior knowledge improves detection of differences in bacterial growth rate. BMC Systems Biology, 9:60 doi:10.1186/s12918-015-0204-9Read more
High levels of cyclic-di-GMP in plant-associated Pseudomonas correlate with evasion of plant immunity. Mol Plant Pathol. 2015 Jul 23. doi: 10.1111/mpp.12297.Read more
Standards for plant synthetic biology: a common syntax for exchange of DNA parts. New Phytologist 14 Jul 2015 doi: 10.1111/nph.13532Read more
The calcium-dependent protein kinase CPK28 negatively regulates the BIK1-mediated PAMP-induced calcium burst. Plant Signaling & Behavior Volume 10, Issue 5Read more
Regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD during plant immunity. Plant Cell Physiol. May 4. 10.1093/pcp/pcv063Read more
Broad application of a simple and affordable protocol for isolating plant RNA. BMC Research Notes 2015, 8:154 doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1119-7Read more
Transgenic Expression of the Dicotyledonous Pattern Recognition Receptor EFR in Rice Leads to Ligand-Dependent Activation of Defense Responses. PLOS Pathogens: DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004809Read more
NEWS AND VIEWS – A new receptor for LPS. Nature Immunology 16, 340–341 (2015) doi:10.1038/ni.3127Read more
Importance of tyrosine phosphorylation in receptor kinase complexes. Trends in Plant Science. doi:10.1016/j.tplants.2015.02.005Read more
Arabidopsis EF-Tu receptor enhances bacterial disease resistance in transgenic wheat. New Phytologist DOI: 10.1111/nph.13356Read more
NEWS AND VIEWS – Engineering insect-free cereals. Nature Biotechnology 33, 262–263 (2015) doi:10.1038/nbt.3162Read more
The Phylogenetically-Related Pattern Recognition Receptors EFR and XA21 Recruit Similar Immune Signaling Components in Monocots and Dicots. PLoS Pathog. 2015 Jan 21;11(1):e1004602. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004602.Read more
Mapping mutations in plant genomes with the user-friendly web application CandiSNP. Plant Methods 2014, 10:306. doi:10.1186/s13007-014-0041-7Read more
Targeting of plant pattern recognition receptor-triggered immunity by bacterial type-III secretion system effectors. Current Opinion in Microbiology (2014): 23, p14–22Read more
The Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase CPK28 Buffers Plant Immunity and Regulates BIK1 Turnover. Cell Host & Microbe (2014) Volume 16, p605–615. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2014.10.007Read more
A receptor-like protein mediates the response to pectin modification by activating brassinosteroid signaling. PNAS (2014) ; published ahead of print October 6, 2014, doi:10.1073/pnas.1322979111Read more
Trade-off between growth and immunity: role of brassinosteroids. Trends Plant Sci. (2014). doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2014.09.003.Read more
Negative control of BAK1 by protein phosphatase 2A during plant innate immunity. EMBO J. 2014 Aug 1. pii: e201488698. [Epub ahead of print] PubMed PMID: 25085430.Read more
Plant pattern recognition receptors. Trends in Immunology, DOI: 10.1016/j.it.2014.05.004.Read more
Plant PRRs and the activation of innate immune signaling. Molecular Cell, 54(2): 263-272.Read more
A bacterial tyrosine phosphatase inhibits plant pattern recognition receptor activation. Science, 343 (6178): 1509-1512.Read more
Methods to study PAMP-triggered immunity in Brassica species. MPMI, 27(3):286-95.Read more
Antagonistic regulation of growth and immunity by the Arabidopsis bHLH transcription factor HBI1. Plant Physiology, in press.Read more
Direct regulation of the NADPH oxidase RBOHD by the PRR-associated kinase BIK1 during plant immunity. Molecular Cell, 54 (1): 43-55.Read more
The grapevine flagellin receptor VvFLS2 differentially recognizes flagellin-derived epitopes from the endophytic growth promoting bacterium Burkholderia phytofirmans and plant pathogenic bacteria. New Phytologist, 201:1371-1384.
The leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinase BAK1 and the cytochrome P450 PAD3 contribute to innate immunity to aphids in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology, 164: 2207-2219.Read more
The leucine-rich repeat receptor kinase BIR2 is a negative regulator of BAK1 in plant immunity. Curr Biol, 24(2):134-43.Read more
Arabidopsis poly(A) polymerase PAPS1 limits founder-cell recruitment to organ primordial and suppresses the salicylic acid-independent pathogen responses downstream of EDS1/PAD4. Plant J, 77:688-99.Read more
The transcriptional regulator BZR1 mediates trade-off between plant innate immunity and growth. eLIFE, 2(0):e00983.
Structural basis for flagellin-induced activation of the FLS2-BAK1 immune receptor complex. Science, 342 (6158):624-628.
The Arabidopsis thaliana Receptor-like Protein RLP30 and Receptor-like kinase SOBIR1/EVR Mediate Innate Immunity toward Necrotrophic Fungi. Plant Cell, 25 (10):4227-4241.
The variable domain of a plant calcium-dependent protein kinase (CDPK) confers subcellular localization and substrate recognition for NADPH oxidase. JBC, 288(20):14332-14340.
Combined roles of ethylene and endogenous peptides in regulating plant immunity and growth. PNAS, 110 (15):5748-5749.
Specialized roles of the conserved subunit OST3/6 of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex in Arabidopsis innate immunity and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Plant Physiology, 162(1):24-38.
Pseudomonas HopU1 modulates plant immune receptor levels by blocking the interaction of their mRNAs with GRP7. EMBO J, 32:701-712.
Effector Biology of Plant-associated Organisms: Concepts and Perspectives. Cold Spring Harbor Symposium on Quantitative Biology, 77:235-247.Read more
Plant pattern recognition receptor complexes at the plasma membrane. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 15(4): 349-357.
Use of PAMP-triggered immunity responses to improve the selection of quantitative disease resistance in cereals. 19th Eucarpia General Congress Proceedings: 131-134.
The shoot apical meristem regulatory peptide CLV3 does not activate innate immunity. Plant Cell, 24(8): 3186-3192.
The Arabidopsis aspartate oxidase plays a specific role in RbohD-mediated innate immunity. Plant Physiology, 159(4): 1845-1856.
Tackling water stress: RECEPTOR-LIKE KINASES to the rescue. Plant Cell, 24(6): 2262-2278.
Receptor kinase interactions: complexity of signalling. In: F. Tax F and B. Kemmerling (eds.). Receptor-like Kinases in Plants, Signaling and Communication in Plants, 13: 145-172.
Brassinosteroids inhibit PAMP-triggered immune signalling independent of the Arabidopsis LRR-RLK BAK1. PNAS, 109(1): 303-308.
Cautionary notes on the use of C-terminal BAK1 fusion proteins for functional studies. Plant Cell, 23(11): 3871-3878.
The Arabidopsis leucine-rich repeat receptor-like kinases BAK1/SERK3 and BKK1/SERK4 are required for innate immunity to hemibiotrophic and biotrophic pathogens. Plant Cell, 23: 2440-2455.
Cell wall damage-induced lignin biosynthesis is regulated by a ROS- and jasmonic acid dependent process in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Physiology, 156(3):1364-1374.
Phosphorylation-dependent differential regulation of plant growth, cell death and innate immunity by the regulatory receptor-like kinase BAK1. PLoS Genetics, 7(4): e1002046.
Deciphering PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. In: Antoun H, Avis T, Brisson L, Prevost D and Trepanier M (ed). International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 7.
Hierarchy and roles of PAMP-induced responses in Nicotiana benthamiana. Plant Physiology, 156(2):687-699.
HEXO1 and HEXO3 are responsible for the formation of paucimannosidic N-glycans in Arabidopsis thaliana. JBC 286: 10793-10802.
The receptor-like kinase SERK3/BAK1 is required for basal resistance against the late blight pathogen Phytophthora infestans in Nicotiana benthamiana. PLoS One, 6:e16608.Read more
Activation of plant pattern-recognition receptors by bacteria. Current Opinion in Microbiology, 14 (1):54-61.
PAMP-triggered immunity: veni, vidi, …? Plant Physiol. 154: 551-554. (review)
Lazarus1, a DUF300 protein, contributes to programmed cell death associated with Arabidopsis acd11 and the hypersensitive response. PLoS One, 5(9). pii: e12586.
Direct transcriptional control of the Arabidopsis immune receptor FLS2 by the ethylene-dependent transcription factors EIN3 and EIL1. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 107: 14502-14507.
Inter-family transfer of a plant pattern recognition receptor confers broad-spectrum bacterial resistance. Nature Biotechnology, 4 :365-369.
A new approach to confer broad-spectrum disease resistance in plants. Information Systems for Biotechnology News Report, Issue June 2010 : 5-8.
Control of the pattern recognition receptor EFR by an ER protein complex in plant immunity. EMBO Journal 28: 3428-3438.
A dedicated subset of ER quality control components required for plant innate immunity. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 15973-15978.
Specific ER quality control components required for biogenesis of the plant innate immune receptor EFR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Sep 15;106(37):15973-8. Epub 2009 Aug 26. PubMed PMID: 19717464; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2747228.
Recent advances in Plant-triggered immunity against bacteria: Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) watch over and raise the alarm. Plant Physiology 150: 1638-47.
Early molecular events in PAMP-triggered immunity. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 12(4): 414-420.
Evaluation of pattern recognition receptors for durable disease control in crops. Phytopathology, 99(6):S108.
Pattern-recognition receptors in plant innate immunity. Current Opinion in Immunology, 20: 10-16.
News from the frontline: recent insights into PAMP-triggered immunity in plants. Current Opinion in Plant Biology 11(4): 389-95.
A genome-wide functional investigation into the roles of receptor-like proteins in Arabidopsis. Plant Physiology 147(2): 503-17.
Genetic analysis of PAMP-triggered immunity in Arabidopsis. In: Lorito, M, Woo, SL and Scala, F (ed). International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 6.
International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 6:46.
Plant immunity: AvrPto targets the front line. Current Biology, 18, R218-R220.
A flagellin-induced complex of the receptor FLS2 and BAK1 initiates plant defence. Nature, 448: 497-500.
Transgeneration memory of stress in plants. Nature, 442: 1046-1049.
Perception of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the receptor EFR restricts Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Cell, 125: 749-760.
Recognition of the bacterial PAMP EF-Tu by the Arabidopsis receptor kinase EFR. In: Sanchez F., Geiger O. (ed). International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 5: 30-34.
Receptor-like kinases and innate immunity in plants. In: Sanchez F., Geiger O. (ed). International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 5: 21-29.
Plants and animals: a different taste for microbes? Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 8 (4): 353-360.
The N-terminus of bacterial elongation factor Tu elicits innate immunity in Arabidopsis plants. Plant Cell, 16 (12): 3496-3507.
The transcriptional innate immune responses to flg22. Interplay and overlap with Avr gene-dependent defense responses and bacterial pathogenesis. Plant Physiology, 135: 1113-1128.
Bacterial disease resistance through flagellin perception in Arabidopsis. Nature, 428: 764-767.
mRNA expression profiling of the Arabidopsis flg22-triggered innate immune response and the Avr9/Cf-9 response in tobacco. In: Tikhonovich I, Lugtenberg B, and Provorov N (ed). International Society for Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions, St. Paul, Minnesota. Biology of Plant-Microbe Interactions, 4: 237-239.
2011 – present Senior Group Leader, The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, UK.
2014 – present Professor, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
2014 – present Professor, University of Zurich, Zurich, CH.
2014 – 2018 Head of The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, UK.
2013 – 2014 Honorary Professor, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
2011 – 2013 Honorary Reader, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK.
2007 – 2018 Associate Faculty Member, John Innes Centre, Norwich, UK.
2007 – 2011 Group Leader, The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, UK.
2005 – 2007 EMBO long-term Postdoctoral Fellow, The Sainsbury Laboratory, Norwich, UK.
2005 PhD in Botany, University of Basel, Switzerland.
2001 – 2005 PhD research project, Friedrich-Miescher Institute for Biomedical Research and the Botanical Institute, University of Basel, Switzerland.
2001 DEA (MSc) in Plant Cellular and Molecular Physiology, University of Paris XI, France.