Oligomerisation of a plant helper NLR requires cell-surface and intracellular immune receptor activation

Plant disease resistance involves both detection of microbial molecular patterns by cell-surface pattern recognition receptors and detection of pathogen effectors by intracellular NLR immune receptors. NLRs are classified as sensor NLRs, involved in effector detection, or helper NLRs required for sensor NLR signalling. TIR-domain-containing sensor NLRs (TNLs) require helper NLRs NRG1 and ADR1 for resistance, and their activation of defense also requires the lipase-domain proteins EDS1, SAG101 and PAD4. We investigated how the helper NLR NRG1 supports TNL-initiated immunity with EDS1 and SAG101. We find that NRG1 associates with EDS1 and SAG101 at the plasma membrane and in the nucleus, but only self-associates at the plasma membrane. Activation of TNLs is sufficient to trigger NRG1-EDS1-SAG101 interaction, but cell-surface receptor-initiated defense is also required to form an oligomeric Resistosome. The data point to formation of NRG1-EDS1-SAG101 heterotrimers in the nucleus upon intracellular receptor activation alone and indicate formation of NRG1-EDS1-SAG101 Resistosomes at the plasma membrane upon co-activation of intracellular and cell surface-receptor pathways.