Knowledge of the immune mechanisms responsible for viral recognition is critical for understanding durable disease resistance and successful crop protection. We determined how potato virus Y (PVY) coat protein (CP) is recognised by Rysto , a TNL immune receptor. We applied structural modelling, site-directed mutagenesis, transient overexpression, co-immunoprecipitation, infection assays and physiological cell death marker measurements to investigate the mechanism of Rysto -CP interaction. Rysto associates directly with PVY CP in planta which is conditioned by the presence of CP central 149 amino acids domain. Each deletion that affects the CP core region impairs the ability of Rysto to trigger defence. Point mutations in the amino acid residues Ser125 , Arg157 , and Asp201 of the conserved RNA-binding pocket of potyviral CP reduce or abolish Rysto binding and Rysto -dependent responses, demonstrating that appropriate folding of the CP core is crucial for Rysto -mediated recognition. Rysto recognises CPs of at least ten crop-damaging viruses that share a similar core region. It confers immunity to plum pox virus and turnip mosaic virus in both Solanaceae and Brassicaceae systems, demonstrating potential utility in engineering virus resistance in various crops. Our findings shed new light on how R proteins detect different viruses by sensing conserved structural patterns.