In the evolution of land plants, the plant immune system has experienced expansion in immune receptor and signaling pathways. Lineage-specific expansions have been observed in diverse gene families that are potentially involved in immunity, but lack causal association. Here, we show that Rps8-mediated resistance in barley to the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (wheat stripe rust) is conferred by a genetic module: LRR-RK and Exo70FX12, which are together necessary and sufficient. The Rps8 LRR-RK is the ortholog of rice extracellular immune receptor Xa21 and Exo70FX12 is a member of the Poales-specific Exo70FX clade. The Exo70FX clade emerged after the divergence of the Bromeliaceae and Poaceae, and comprises from 2 to 75 members in sequenced grasses. These results demonstrate the requirement of a lineage-specific Exo70FX12 in Rps8 LRR-RK immunity and suggest that the Exo70FX clade may have evolved a specialized role in receptor kinase signaling.