Dynamic changes of the Prf/Pto tomato resistance complex following effector recognition

  • Published:
  • Authors: Sheikh AH, Zacharia I, Pardal AJ, Dominguez-Ferreras A, Sueldo DJ, Kim JG, Balmuth A, Gutierrez JR, Conlan BF, Ullah N, Nippe OM, Girija AM, Wu CH, Sessa G, Jones AME, Grant MR, Gifford ML, Mudgett MB, Rathjen JP, Ntoukakis V (2023)
  • Reference: Nat Commun. 2023 May 4;14(1):2568. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-38103-6.

In both plants and animals, nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) immune receptors play critical roles in pathogen recognition and activation of innate immunity. In plants, NLRs recognise pathogen-derived effector proteins and initiate effector-triggered immunity (ETI). However, the molecular mechanisms that link NLR-mediated effector recognition and downstream signalling are not fully understood. By exploiting the well-characterised tomato Prf/Pto NLR resistance complex, we identified the 14-3-3 proteins TFT1 and TFT3 as interacting partners of both the NLR complex and the protein kinase MAPKKKα. Moreover, we identified the helper NRC proteins (NLR-required for cell death) as integral components of the Prf /Pto NLR recognition complex. Notably our studies revealed that TFTs and NRCs interact with distinct modules of the NLR complex and, following effector recognition, dissociate facilitating downstream signalling. Thus, our data provide a mechanistic link between activation of immune receptors and initiation of downstream signalling cascades.